Knowledge

Behentrimonium methosulfate and cetearyl alcohol: a cationic quaternary compound.  Cetearyl alcohol is added to behentrimonium methosulfate as fatty alcohols work to boost the substantivity of cationic quaternary compounds, making them more conditioning and moisturizing.  Derivation involves ethoxylated ingredients.  BTMS is also a self-emulsifying wax that allows water and oil to stay mixed.

Cationic emulsion: group of ions having a positive charge.

Cationic quaternary compound: is hydrophobic (scared of water) so it will resist removal by water alone.

Ethoxylated: chemical reaction in which ethylene oxide adds to fatty alcohols and phenols (chemical compounds).

Substantivity: material that is positively charged (like cationic ingredients) will be attracted to the surface of hair which is negatively charged.

Cold pressed oil: oil that has been expeller extracted in a heat-controlled environment and processed at temperatures that never exceed 120 degrees.  Any generated heat results from friction and not from an external source.  Cold pressed oils retain most of their subtle flavor, color and nutritional value which is then passed on to your hair and skin.

Density: a measure of the number of hair strands within a 1 square inch section of your scalp.

Expeller pressed oil: oil that has been expeller extracted but processed at higher temperatures than cold pressed oil, typically around 210 degrees.  Expeller pressed oils still retain flavor, color and nutritional value, but not as much as cold pressed oils.

Film-forming, porosity-filling: higher molecular weight proteins have more of a coating effect during use.  For high porosity hair, higher molecular weight proteins will porosity-fill (fill in gaps on the hair surface) and film-form (lightly coat the surface of the hair).  For low porosity hair, higher molecular weight proteins will film-form (lightly coat the surface of the hair).

Hydrolyzed oats: liquidized or soluble form of whole oats.

Hydrolyzed oat protein: oat protein that has been broken down into its component amino acids to enable penetration into the hair shaft and to adhere to damaged cuticle layers providing strength and moisture.  Generally, whole proteins are too large to penetrate the hair shaft.

Moisture, hydration: required by all hair textures. Moisture is derived from water-based products that can be absorbed and retained by your hair. Hydration is derived from products that simultaneously reduce moisture loss and increase moisture content (i.e., from products containing hydrolyzed proteins, silk amino acids, hydrolyzed oats, clays, humectants, etc.).

Potential of Hydrogen or pH: measurement of how acidic or alkali a substance is. It is judged on a scale between 0 and 14. Anything between 0 and 6.9 is acidic, 7 is neutral, and anything between 7.1 and 14 is alkaline. Human hair and scalp oil, sebum, has a pH balance of between 4.5 and 5.5. This natural hair acidity prevents fungi and bacteria in the hair and scalp, and keeps the cuticle closed and healthy. Many of the hair products that people use disrupt the natural pH of the hair. A substance that is too alkaline will cause the hair cuticle to open, while a substance that is too acidic will cause the cuticle to contract.

Porosity: a measure of how well your hair absorbs and retains moisture.  Porosity is affected by the outermost layer of hair known as the cuticle.

Low porosity: has a tightly bound cuticle layer with overlapping scales that lay flat. This hair type is usually considered healthy, and is often very shiny, especially when dark in color. Low porosity hair repels moisture when you try to wet it and is hard to process since it resists penetration of chemicals.  Low porosity hair is also prone to build-up from protein-rich deep conditioning products, which can leave it feeling stiff and straw-like. Use protein-free, daily conditioners with humectants.  Use appropriate-pH products to help open the tightly bound cuticle.  Low porosity hair requires moisturizers rich in emollients and humectants, which attract and hold moisture to your hair. Choose lighter, liquid-based products such as lotions that will not sit on your hair and leave it oily or greasy.
Medium porosity: often requires the least amount of maintenance. The cuticle layer is looser, allowing just the right amount of moisture to enter while preventing too much from escaping. Hair with normal porosity tends to hold styles well and can be chemically-altered with predictable results.  Occasional deep conditioning treatments with protein conditioners can benefit medium porosity hair, but proteins should not be included in your daily regimen.
High porosity: can be either an inherent property of hair or the result of damage from chemical processing, rough treatment or environmental damage. High porosity hair has gaps and holes in the cuticle, which let too much moisture into your hair and leave it prone to frizz and tangling in humid weather. Even simple acts such as bathing, swimming and shampooing can create more damage and breakage due to the sheer amount of moisture highly porous hair can absorb.  Be sure to use anti-humectants in climates with high heat and humidity. This will help seal your damaged cuticles and prevent them from absorbing excess moisture in the air.  Because highly porous hair can also lose moisture easily, it is important to use leave in conditioners, moisturizers and sealers.  Layering these products will help your hair hold on to the moisture you are giving it.  You can even follow up with a heavy hair butter to help fill the gaps in your damaged cuticles and further protect your hair from losing too much moisture.

Silk amino acids: produced by breaking apart silk proteins into smaller peptide chains.  Silk amino acids have a lower molecular weight than silk protein powders and are more moisturizing to skin and hair.  Silk amino acids are also known as sericin.

Unrefined, Refined: unrefined oils are minimal heat processed oils (cold or expeller pressed) that have not been bleached or deodorized after extraction.  Refined oils have been bleached and/or deodorized and processed at temperatures of up to 400 degrees (significant heat temperatures degrade oil quality and require further processing methods such as bleaching and deodorizing).  'Raw', 'pure', 'virgin' and 'extra virgin' oils indicate number of pressings and unrefined status.  Unrefined oils tastes like the fruit or seed or oil they are extracted from.

Wet-milled fermentation: fresh, whole, sound, ripe coconuts are shelled, then pared to remove the brown skin. The white meat is milled to fine shreds and dried.  After drying, the milled coconut is passed through a customized, cold process oil press to separated the coconut oil. The oil is collected in a receiving pan and pumped through a series of filter cloths, which results in a 'clear' coconut oil, known commercially as virgin coconut oil.

Width: a measure of the thickness of your individual hair strands.


Sources:

  1. http://swiftcraftymonkey.blogspot.com/
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/
  3. https://www.mountainroseherbs.com/
  4. http://www.livestrong.com/
  5. http://www.naturallycurly.com/
  6. http://coconutoil.com
  7. http://www.naturalgirlsrock.com/